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                                      CHOCOLATE ...

   One of the word is already sweet and mouth, and your soul. And how many goodies prepared with chocolate! And how many of the most chocolate is made! You can not mention. Chocolate is definitely a useful product - how can such a delicious product and carries joy to harm! That is, of course, can ... But more on that later.

   One of the word is already sweet and mouth, and your soul. And how many goodies prepared with chocolate! And how many of the most chocolate is made! You can not mention. Chocolate is definitely a useful product - how can such a delicious product and carries joy to harm! That is, of course, can ... But more on that later.

                              HISTORY OF CHOCOLATE

   Most likely the ancient history of chocolate began in what is now Mexico. In about 2000 BC in the fertile, al-most heavenly lowlands and plateaus in the Gulf of Mexico in Central America there was a civilization of ancient Indians - Olmec. Their culture has left us a legacy of very little, but linguistic scholars believe that the modern word "cocoa" for the first time sounded like "kakawa" about 1000 years BC, at the time of flowering of the Olmec civilization.                                                                                                                                              

  Chocolate was then only a special drink. It was used in the cold - roasted cocoa beans, which themselves havea bitter taste, were ground in a special way and mixed with water and then added to the mix chili. The ancient Olmec civilization, which had the opportunity to try first invented the drink, and gave the name used to date - cocoa.                                                                                                                                                    

   Was considered a sacred drink, drink it could only be elected: the fathers of the tribe, their retainers, the priests and the most deserving soldiers. Legends say that the Aztec leader Montezuma was so fond of chocolate drink that daily drinking 50 glasses. For clarification, we note that the Aztecs called the little gold glasses glassesAround the same time, namely, three thousand years ago, in another part of the world was invented, and other sweet treats, which is now closely associated with chocolate. The ancient Egyptians, too, live in the fertile and fertile place - the Nile Delta, intentionally or accidentally mixed the honey, figs and nuts, grated - and became the founders of the oldest in the world of sweets. More than a thousand years, the chocolate drink has not changed anything from the original composition. History of chocolate continued Mayan tribe, which gradually replaced the ancient civilization of the Olmec. During this period, paganism was the reason that chocolate has become a very valuable drink with him was associated a number of religious rituals and traditions. The value of the chocolate was great, because it is equated with the priests of the food of the gods.                                                      

   At the time of the Maya cacao trees purposely did not grow - these plants are not cultivated them. They grew a lot, but not enough for everyone to drink plenty of divine drink. Gradually, the Indians began to use the cocoa beans as the old currency as a means of payment. On the account of each fruit was: 100 cocoa beans, for exam-ple, you could buy agood slave, an Indian, and beans for 5 young women sold their lovemaking. In subsequent centuries the value of cocoa fruits led to the Maya, to begin to build cocoa plantations.

In this ancient story of chocolate begins and ends with a tragic ancient history ...

   Aztecs of Central America, which gradually replaced the Mayan civilization, in respect of cocoa was much easier. Mayan Indians living on their territory before, erected the first plantations, and brought up a very yielding varieties of cocoa beans, and harvest each year is increasing. The value of the fruit of the cacao tree has declined slightly, they have become common, although a valuable raw material. In the first millennium AD is the cacao beans were used as a tribute.

   Even after about five hundred years came during the first long-distance seafaring and discovery, a step to ensure that the chocolate was known in Europe. It is not known, but historians insist that the first cocoa beans to Europe in 1492 brought the first trip to America by Christopher Columbus. Then, still not very well-known traveler gave fruit to the king as one of the most precious gifts. But the great traveler made a tragic mistake - he had not learned the technology of chocolate and not able to make from donated cocoa chocolate drink for the king and jealous suite, which has caused deep resentment vindictive king. This secret resentment in the future has brought a lot of troubleto Columbus. Later Spanish confectioners were unable to prepare the "divine drink" only verbal descriptions of the traveler, so this generous gift to Europe has long remained unclaimed.And then, finally, in 1517, arriving in Mexico calculating, cunning and bloodthirsty Spaniard Hernando Cortez. The Aztecs first take him for returning to the sky god Quetzalcoatl.Cortes bestowed rich gifts of gold and the mighty Aztec leader Montezuma. But soon the Aztec civilization was filled with blood. Cortes with fire and sword won one of the most advanced Indian megafor-matsy. Looted gold and other treasures of the conquistador intended to use in Europe not only as a gift to the King And slicker-conqueror realized that (xocoatl) "ksokoatl" - that sounds divine drink called the language of the Aztecs, will win him an excellent position and at home. Cortez made under torture, the Indian priests to teach his followers ordinances making chocolate drink.Now he had a secret truly global significance. He was determined not to repeat the mistake of Columbus geographical discoveries of which he was very jealous.                        

   Cortez shrewdly saw to the destruction of the priests and all those involved in this secret.On the ships were secretly shipped large amounts of cocoa and other essential ingredients, and all the stone and wooden devices to produce a chocolate drink. In addition, the Cortes were first collected and brought to Europe other unusual plants: tomatoes, beans and corn. Spanish court received a truly "royal" gift in return for forgiveness nemeryannom atrocities in America. The Spaniards at the insistence of the king kept a closely guarded secret recipes cooking chocolate drinks.                                                                                                                                       

   The fact that they began to do with cocoa beans, the Spaniards, it was already much closer to the chocolate, which is known to us. New recipe included cinnamon, nutmeg and sugar favorite in Europe. Chili was expelled from the recipe and the chocolate will only ennobled, the drink was now serve hot. These changes were for the benefit of chocolate and he became very popular in wealthy homes in Spain, although it was very expensive be-cause of the difficulties with the supply of cocoa beans from America.                                                            

In the XVII century, people attributed miraculous properties of chocolate and even used it as medicine. Known at the time the healer Christopher Ludwig Hoffmann strongly recommend it as a remedy for many diseases, confir-ming a good example of the treatment of Cardinal Richelieu. Around this same time include information about the active contraband trade in this product in the Netherlands and the German Emperor Charles V demanded that even a monopoly on cocoa.                                                                                                                   

   The ruling Spanish to know almost immediately imposed huge taxes on cocoa beans, and drink of the gods could afford and there only a select few - that is already under Spanish social order, those who were able to pay very expensive chocolate. Ready to drink and began to act in other European countries - traders did not miss the opportunity to earn. In Europe, this fashionable beverage first came to be called "Chocolate," and then "choco-late”. The Spaniards kept strictly chocolate recipe a secret. But for a long time to conceal this wonderful drink was impossible. The Spaniards opened a few conspiracy whose purpose there have been attempts to steal the secret of chocolate. Several real or imaginary thieves and spies were executed or tortured to death in the Spanish tor-ture chambers. But the secret of chocolate leak occurred naturally. After 88 years after the gift of Cortez, in 1615, there was a dynastic marriage of Louis XIII to the Spanish Infanta Anne of Austria, and learned the taste of cho-colate in France. Anna was very fond of this beverage, and despite the dissatisfaction of his father - the King of Spain Philip III, brought the recipes to her husband and ordered him to make choco-late for the French court. Especially for this in France was discharged a young gentlewoman Molina (Molina), who skillfully was preparing hot chocolate. Molina in France in less than 12 years has taught the secret art of over 600 people.

The medieval period in the history of chocolate begins with the 17th century.

Mariners continued their journey to distant shores: among them was also the Italian traveler, Fran-cesco Karletti (Carletti). Karletti been to Spain and was fascinated by chocolate. He really  wanted to get the secret of chocolate, the Spanish did explore was not possible, so that its main purpose was to travel to Central America. Karletti able to learn drawing original chocolate drink in Mexican town of Oaxaca nuns (Oaxaca), so the secret soon became known in Italy.

    In Italy, this leads to a real chocolate mania, chocolate cafe - shokolaterii (cioccolatieri) were opened in all major Italian cities. But Perugia, where he opened the first such chocolate cafe, hitherto considered to be the heart of Italian chocolate world. In Venice, there were first chocolate shops. The Italians were not so zealously guard the recipe goodies. From Italy, chocolate was introduced in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Thus, in the 17th century, chocolate became known throughout Europe.                                                                          

   A cup of hot chocolate for dessert was a sign of good taste among the upper classes throughout Europe, a sign of wealth and respectability. The divine drink inspired poets and artists. "Chocolate Girl", created in the mid-40s of the XVII century, inscribed his name in the art world Swiss painter Jean Etienne Liotard.                         

   Italians appreciated the consumer properties of the product and the first to mass-production of chocolate. Cho-colate drink has become one of the most profitable articles of import in Italy. Some problems about chocolate in Italy arose from religious clergy. Were very longtheological disputes about whether it is permissible to drink cho-colate during Lent? So much so, that the matter appealed to Pope Pius the Fifth. Cunning Italian confectioners-presented the Pope instead of sweet chocolate "original" Indian beverage. Having tastedthe strange bitter drink is not very edible flowers, the pope spoke as follows: "Chocolatedoes not violate the post. Cannot bring this crap to someone fun. "                                                                                                                                    

   In France, chocolate was a French opponent of the court of Madame Sevigne, asserting that respectable maid of honor of the royal court give birth to black children because ofdrinking chocolate during pregnancy, and not from relations with abessinskimi, Ethiopianand Algerian nalozhnikami by pages.Later, in the 18th century, views on the chocolate changed on almost exactly the opposite - over-enthusiastic: he attributed the ability to cure fever, gastritis, and even prolong the life of the property.                                     

   In the middle of the XVIII century France opened the first confectionery, where everyone could enjoy a drink.By 1798 in Paris, there were about 500 such institutions. In England the famous Chocolate Club House (Choco-late Houses) have become so popular that even eclipsed tea and coffee shops.                                               

   Louis XV's mistress Madame de Pompadour and Madame du Barry loved chocolate - first claimed that eating it in order to heat the blood, since the king is often reproached her that she is cold to him, the second one was giving his many chocolate lovers, for to match its temperament.                                                                   

   In 1659 a Frenchman named David Shell opened the world's first chocolate factory. True, the process of making chocolate in it had almost nothing in common with the modern, he copied the techniques of the Aztecs: grain purified, naturally, by hand and then roasted, ground up, adding the ingredients laid out on a stone table and rolled metal roller. And in 1674, cocoa beans were added to pastries - cakes and rolls, so the first time appeared "edible" chocolate, though, of course, he was still a far cry from the traditional tiles.                                     1

   Solid and similar to the modern chocolate was much later, only in the 19th century - until the technology could \not get the pure cocoa butter, which forces a chocolate bar to keep its shape. Select peanut butter in its purest form was in 1819 Swiss citizen Francois Louis Kaye, and he first gained a solid chocolate - something remotely resembling a modern tile. A year after this event, not far from the village Vivi was built factory for its production.